This is the first part of my contributions to CPython during 2017 Q2 (april, may, june):

  • Statistics
  • Buidbots and test.bisect
  • Python 3.6.0 regression
  • struct.Struct.format type
  • Optimization: one less syscall per open() call
  • make regen-all

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# All branches
$ git log --after=2017-03-31 --before=2017-06-30 --reverse --branches='*' --author=Stinner > 2017Q2
$ grep '^commit ' 2017Q2|wc -l

# Master branch only
$ git log --after=2017-03-31 --before=2017-06-30 --reverse --author=Stinner origin/master|grep '^commit '|wc -l

Statistics: 85 commits in the master branch, a total of 222 commits: most (but not all) of the remaining 137 commits are cherry-picked backports to 2.7, 3.5 and 3.6 branches.

Note: I didn't use --no-merges since we don't use merge anymore, but git cherry-pick -x, to backport fixes. Before GitHub, we used forwardport with Mercurial merges (ex: commit into 3.6, then merge into master).

Buildbots and test.bisect

Since this article became way too long, I splitted it into sub-articles:

Python 3.6.0 regression

I am ashamed, I introduced a tricky regression in Pyton 3.6.0 with my work on FASTCALL optimizations :-( A special way to call C builtin functions was broken:

from datetime import datetime
next(iter(, None))

This code raises a StopIteration exception instead of formatting the current date and time.

It's even worse. I was aware of the bug, it was already fixed it in master, but I just forgot to backport my fix: bpo-30524, fix _PyStack_UnpackDict().

To prevent regressions, I wrote exhaustive unit tests on the 3 FASTCALL functions, commit: bpo-30524: Write unit tests for FASTCALL

struct.Struct.format type

Sometimes, fixing a bug can take longer than expected. In March 2014, Zbyszek Jędrzejewski-Szmek reported a bug on the format attribute of the struct.Struct class: this attribute type is bytes, whereas a Unicode string (str) was expected.

I proposed to "just" change the attribute type in December 2014, but it was an incompatible change which would break the backward compatibility. Martin Panter agreed and wrote a patch. Serhiy Storchaka asked to discuss such incompatible change on python-dev, but then nothing happened during longer than... 2 years!

In March 2017, I converted the old Martin's patch into a new GitHub pull request. Serhiy asked again to write to python-dev, so I wrote: Issue #21071: change struct.Struct.format type from bytes to str. And... I got zero answer.

Well, I didn't expect any, since it's a trivial change, and I don't expect that anyone rely on the exact format attribute type. Moreover, the struct.Struct constructor already accepts bytes and str types. If the attribute is passed to the constructor: it just works.

In June 2017, Serhiy Storchaka replied to my email: If nobody opposed to this change it will be made in short time.

Since nobody replied, again, I just merged my pull request. So it took 3 years and 3 months to change the type of an uncommon attribute :-)

Note: I never used this attribute... Before reading this issue, I didn't even know that the struct module has a struct.Struct type...

Optimization: one less syscall per open() call

In bpo-30228, I modified and FileIO.tell() methods to now set the internal seekable attribute to avoid one fstat() syscall per Python open() call in buffered or text mode.

The seekable property is now also more reliable since its value is set correctly on memory allocation failure.

I still have a second pending pull request to remove one more fstat() syscall: bpo-30228: TextIOWrapper uses abs_pos, not tell().

make regen-all

I started to look at bpo-23404, because the Python compilation failed on the "AMD64 FreeBSD 9.x 3.x" buildbot when trying to regenerate the Include/opcode.h file.

Old broken make touch

We had a make touch command to workaround this file timestamp issue, but the command uses Mercurial, whereas Python migrated to Git last february. The buildobt "touch" step was removed because make touch was broken.

I was always annoyed by the Makefile which wants to regenerate generated files because of wrong file modification time, whereas the generated files were already up to date.

The bug annoyed me on OpenIndiana where "make touch" didn't work beause the operating system only provides Python 2.6 and Mercurial didn't work on this version.

The bug also annoyed me on FreeBSD which has no "python" command, only "python2.7", and so required manual steps.

The bug was also a pain point when trying to cross-compile Python.

New shiny make regen-all

I decided to rewrite the Makefile to not regenerate generated files based on the file modification time anymore. Instead, I added a new make regen-all command to regenerate explicitly all generated files. Basically, I replaced make touch with make regen-all.


  • Add a new make regen-all command to rebuild all generated files
  • Add subcommands to only generate specific files:
    • regen-ast: Include/Python-ast.h and Python/Python-ast.c
    • regen-grammar: Include/graminit.h and Python/graminit.c
    • regen-importlib: Python/importlib_external.h and Python/importlib.h
    • regen-opcode: Include/opcode.h
    • regen-opcode-targets: Python/opcode_targets.h
    • regen-typeslots: Objects/
  • pgen is now only built by make regen-grammar
  • Add $(srcdir)/ prefix to paths to source files to handle correctly compilation outside the source directory
  • Remove make touch, Tools/hg/ and .hgtouch

Note: By default, $(PYTHON_FOR_REGEN) is no more used nor needed by "make".